E1b-V22 Studies


To compare the modals of these different groups with your STR's you can use the E1b-V22 modals in combination with McGee Y-Utility tool. The knowledge on the branches between the MRCA of V22 and now is still limited. As you see below, all branches are far from each other.

The hope is that these examples help to get an idea on the migration path. It is likely that they originate in Africa. It is highly uncertain when the ancestor of the Western European descendants migrated to Europe. See also yfull.

A few options are:

These events (Corded Ware, Romans) are important moments in history. Y-DNA percentages can change due to a migration and successive increase of population (Corded Ware, large percentage change in Y-DNA) or large scale migrations (Romans, introduction of new Y-DNA in Europe from distance regions, smaller amounts).

On this page we try to collect the different types of public data. The 67-marker tests are used (semargl, ftdna and ysearch) for the analysis below. The SNP-markers that are known of the branches are reported.

At the moment several events have been found in the branches:

At the moment about 10 next generation sequenced Y-DNA data are analysed. Another eight are being analysed. Data is also found in the literature: An old version of the preliminary tree is available.

Two interesting articles have appeared on measurements in the region where V22 has a larger population density:

Many branches are all narrow and long. Hardly any sidebranches are found in the period 8000-2000ybp.

The Y-DNA branches

#Y-DNA SNP# of personspercentagebest estimate
of birth of
ancestor (CE)
95% range
of birth of
ancestor (CE)
most likely originmeasured SNP

markers in branch

Additional info
LT-01 E1b-V22-N8871310.5391108-1926V22+ Geno20Ethiopia-Bekele
LT-02 E1b-V22-M824110.5391108-1926-Sudan
LT-03 E1b-V22-M801110.5391108-1926Arabia
LT-04 E1b-V22-Arab2714.29566-493PH2818+ L674+ Big-Y (>5)Arab
LT-05 E1b-V22-N8294010.5391108-1926CTS11145+Saudi Arabia
LT-06 E1b-V22-27402710.5391108-1926PH2818+PH2121+ Big-YSaudi Arabia
LT-07 E1b-V22-M844110.5391108-1926Yemen-Murad
LT-08 E1b-V22-15088410.5391108-1926V22* Big-YAbdulrahman-Arabia?
LT-09 E1b-V22-16980910.5391108-1926PH2818+BY872+ Big-YAlTamimi-SaudiArabia
LT-10 E1b-V22-21748710.5391108-1926SaudiArabia-Masoudi
LT-11 E1b-V22-21229342.1250-197-977ClusterP-Kuwait
LT-12 E1b-V22-19323910.5391108-1926SaudiArabia
LT-13 E1b-V22-M600210.5391108-1926AlNaserat-Levant
LT-14 E1b-V22-N7376710.5391108-1926L674-AbuBeid-Jordan
LT-15 E1b-V22-N10720510.5391108-1926Morocco
LT-16 E1b-V22-Ashkenazi3015.8743444-836old Middle EastV22+CTS6080- Big-Y (O) ClusterE-Ashkenazi branch
LT-17 E1b-V22-2nd21.0627472-1615old Middle EastClusterM-Ashkenazi branch
LT-18 E1b-V22-N3364131.5936243-1352ClusterD-Ashkenazi
LT-19 E1b-V22-7013731.59111281-1830Sephardic-Mayo-Turkey (close A)
LT-20 E1b-V22-N2NVK42.1251605-1886Big-Y (O)Medeiros-Portugal-possiblyJewishAncestors
LT-21 E1b-V22-19850310.5391108-1926CTS6080+CTS11742-Spain-Juan Reyes-possiblySephardic
LT-22 E1b-V22-8452421.0691297-1885Big-Y (O)Zacarias-Portugal
LT-23 E1b-V22-N589410.5391108-1926Mendoza-Causa-Spain
LT-24 E1b-V22-FTGD410.5391108-1926-DeCastrLeon
LT-25 E1b-V22-N8413410.5391108-1926Big-Y (O)ClusterQ-Montoya-Spain
LT-26 E1b-V22-776531.5933358-1414ClusterR-Commisso-Ritorto-Italy
LT-27 E1b-V22-N6529410.5391108-1926Manolis-Cyprus
LT-28 E1b-V22-33020410.5391108-1926Greece-France
LT-29 E1b-V22-18989810.5391108-1926-Doolos-Greece
LT-30 E1b-V22-N3391010.5391108-1926Bertelli-ItalyNorth
LT-31 E1b-V22-N941710.5391108-1926Italy-Legname
LT-32 E1b-V22-E490410.5391108-1926Russo
LT-33 E1b-V22-13504621.0619821-1750ClusterI-Italy-Tandle
LT-34 E1b-V22-E804910.5391108-1926-Stella-Italy
LT-35 E1b-V22-6873121.0619821-1750ClusterK-Back-Germany
LT-36 E1b-V22-6343310.5391108-1926-Newman-Germany
LT-37 E1b-V22-13462110.5391108-1926Steiner-Hungary
LT-38 E1b-V22-4561710.5391108-1926Big-Y (O)Hessling-Netherlands
LT-39 E1b-V22-12370721.0661469-1895Big-Y (O)OldeHengel-Netherlands
LT-40 E1b-V22-N6758921.0619818-1751ClusterJ-Kniermann-Germany
LT-41 E1b-V22-3812252.6537352-1228ClusterO-Kronowetter-Czech
LT-42 E1b-V22-16014121.0691297-1885FGC2682+ Big-YCTS6080-ClusterS-Schweiter-Czech
LT-43 E1b-V22-29958873.70131327-1727PH2818+BY872+ Big-YCTS11742-Watts
LT-44 E1b-V22-3246052.65171119-1671ClusterF-Heard
LT-45 E1b-V22-1450563.1728730-1406PH2818+PH2818ClusterG-Daly
LT-46 E1b-V22-4810431.5923768-1617ClusterC-Britishs
LT-47 E1b-V22-11356321.0643-203-1311ClusterQ-Sheldon
LT-48 E1b-V22-5444963.17201029-1586ClusterG-Ramsey-Wilson
LT-49 E1b-V22-N4845810.5391108-1926ClusterB-Race
LT-50 E1b-V22-SJG8V21.0639-30-1389PH2818+BY872+ Big-Y (3)BY872-ClusterAndrews
LT-51 E1b-V22-N5140210.5338-382-1611Big-Y (O)ClusterN-Hunt
LT-52 E1b-V22-12685110.5391108-1926Big-Y (O)ClusterL-Spurgeon
LT-53 E1b-V22-16743221.0661469-1895ClusterA-Turkey-Armenia-Bedrosian
LT-54 E1b-V22-15568610.5391108-1926Armenia-Melik
LT-55 E1b-V22-16448710.5391108-1926Organessian-Armenia
LT-56 E1b-V22-17424710.5391108-1926Melik-Armenia
LT-57 E1b-V22questionmark-33396610.5338-382-1611-ClusterA-Sassoon-Michal-Iraq
LT-58 E1b-V22questionmark-21875021.0661469-1895-A
LT-59 E1b-V22questionmark-22963510.5391108-1926-A
LT-60 E1b-V22questionmark-17179510.5391108-1926-A
LT-61 E1b-V22questionmark-19332921.0615996-1813-A
LT-62 E1b-V22questionmark-N5821810.5391108-1926-A
LT-63 E1b-V22questionmark-18573910.5391108-1926-A
LT-64 E1b-V22questionmark-12523310.5391108-1926-A
LT-65 E1b-V22questionmark-22544210.5391108-1926-A
LT-66 E1b-V22questionmark-7121521.0615996-1813-A
LT-67 E1b-V22questionmark-22354610.5391108-1926-A
LT-68 E1b-V22questionmark-10692810.5391108-1926-A
LT-69 E1b-V22questionmark-23371010.5391108-1926-A
LT-70 E1b-V22questionmark-19817410.5391108-1926-A
LT-71 E1b-V22questionmark-14953210.5391108-1926-A
LT-72 E1b-V22questionmark-15817921.0619821-1750-A
LT-73 E1b-V22questionmark-20530310.5391108-1926-A
LT-74 E1b-V22questionmark-8093110.5391108-1926-A
LT-75 E1b-V22questionmark-371410.5391108-1926-A
LT-76 E1b-V22questionmark-19419510.5391108-1926-A
LT-77 E1b-V22questionmark-E208810.5391108-1926-A
LT-78 E1b-V22questionmark-N1549510.5391108-1926-A
LT-79 E1b-V22questionmark-10363621.06121144-1853-A
LT-80 E1b-V22questionmark-21773610.5391108-1926-A
LT-81 E1b-V22-41566910.5391108-1926Sephardic-Rodrigues-Argentina
LT-M1 E1b-V22-37786610.6391108-1926PH2818 Big-YJans-Frisia-Netherlands
LT-M2 E1b-V22-M1028910.6391108-1926PH3118 Big-YSaudi-Arabia

The complete groups in STR

The complete group can be analysed using STR analysis. The result is shown below. The estimated shared ancestor for the 49 branches is a little more than 5000ybp. The value using SNP mutations of yfull is 8200ybp. Since the TMRCA-STR is determined on the assumption of one moment where all the branches split off, the real value of 5000ybp should probably be a lot longer. We can see no clustering in the branches on the basis of regions. It is therefor likely that the branches did not branch off in the different regions. It is more likely that the branches splitt off near the area that V22 originates, and the distribution over the larger area took place fairly recent (less than 2000 ybp). This is consistent with the low percentages of V22 in a large region.

A second set of STRs

In 2013 Marko Heinila did a beautiful analysis on the public STR data. He mapped the STR data in trees according to their SNP and STR information. Using this data we have a nice dataset op V22 people, whose STR are such that they are almost certain V22, allthough they have not tested the required SNP's. In case the data is correct, they should give a similar result as the first group. See the diagram below, and you see that these people are almost certainly V22. The estimated tmrca and modals are consistent to be the same. Six markers with high mutation rates are not the same as the first group. This is consistent.


The following branches can be recognized: